GLOBAL – A groundbreaking study harnessing publicly available whole genome sequencing (WGS) data has shed light on the concerning landscape of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) within various Salmonella serovars, offering a comprehensive overview of resistance patterns and the identification of prominent antibiotic resistance genes.

Drawing data from a vast array of sources, the study culled information from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and paired it with metadata accessed via the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Pathogen Detection Project.

Among a staggering 191,306 Salmonella genomes encompassing 116 countries and spanning over a century from 1905 to 2020, the study focused on 47,452 Salmonella isolates, with a striking 97.86 percent originating after 2001.A

This extensive dataset was meticulously classified into 11 sources and 22 serovars. Salmonella genomes were identified in various reservoirs, including human (29.1 percent), avian (22.5 percent), environment (11.89 percent), water (9.33 percent), swine (6.62 percent), bovine (6.49 percent), food (4.54 percent), plant (1.4 percent), feed (1.22 percent), nut and bean (0.33 percent), and other sources (5.72 percent).

Among the findings, the top 10 common serovars included S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, S. Muenchen, S. Heidelberg, S. Javiana, S. Montevideo, and S. Anatum. Remarkably, S. Enteritidis dominated human samples, while S. Kentucky led in avian samples.

To unveil the distribution of AMR within these Salmonella isolates, the researchers delved into resistance rates across various antimicrobial classes, yielding alarming results.

Aminoglycoside resistance emerged as the most prevalent (98.39 percent), followed by tetracycline (23.85 percent), folate pathway antagonist (18.63 percent), β-lactam (15.78 percent), phenicol (7.94 percent), fluoroquinolone (3.36 percent), polymyxin (1.18 percent), and macrolide (0.51 percent).

Notably, key antibiotic resistance gene profiles were identified, encompassing β-lactam (blaTEM-1B), fluoroquinolone (parC[T57S], qnrB19), folate pathway antagonist (sul2), macrolide (mph(A)), phenicol (floR), polymyxin B (mcr-1.1), and tetracycline (tet(A)).

Importantly, these resistance gene profiles were not confined to the United States but mirrored patterns observed globally.

The study paints a concerning picture of Salmonella‘s evolving resistance to antibiotics, emphasizing the urgent need for proactive measures to combat the escalating threat of AMR in these pathogens.

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